HOUSING DEVELOPMENT PROJECT FOR THE REHABILITATION OF THE CENTRAL AREA OF FORTALEZA (capital of Ceará State, northeast of Brazil)
Date:from 2007 until 2009
Area: 474 ha
Client: Fortaleza Municipality (Fundação de Desenvolvimento Habitacional de Fortaleza - HABITAFOR
Prefeitura do Município de Fortaleza)
Architecture and Urban team: José Armenio de Brito Cruz, general coordination Renata Semin, executive
Consultants: Alessandra d´Avila Vieira, Beatriz Rufino, Isadora Tami Lemos Tsukumo e Tereza Herling
Collaborators: Daniel Maeda, Gustavo Partezani Rodrigues, Marco Aurelio Garcia, Marilia Gouveia Ferreira
Lima, Sheila Altmann e Wagner Brito
Other consultants:Madza Ednir Julita Nogueira, pedagogist – Communication for social participation Pedro
Araújo, lawyer – Urban Law Reginaldo Forti, sociologist – Urban Sociology
The Housing Development Project for the revitalization of the central area of Fortaleza, capital of Ceará, in the northeast region of Brazil, was developed as part of the Program of Revitalization of Central Urban Areas, from the National Urban Programs of the Ministry of the Cities.
The aim of this program is the revitalization of the central urban areas with social inclusion and an emphasis on the diversity of its uses, as well as the recovery of underused real estate for housing purposes, ensuring the social function of the city and the real estate, in compliance with the current City Statute (Estatuto da Cidade).
The Master Plan was built on the basis of a systematic dialogue between urban planning professionals and several municipal agents, as well as community representatives, with a view to discussing proposals and solutions.
The results presented countless possibilities to restore Fortaleza´s heritage and to populate the central area by renovating its public spaces – green areas and buildings - through integrated actions from strategic sectors.
Bearing in mind that the plan is geared to the housing policy, the integration among sectional policies was also valued as a fundamental element for its implementation, in order to ensure that the results of these actions will withstand the passage of time and reach out beyond the boundaries of the central area.
According to the definitions of the Master Plan´s goals, the boundaries were considered as shown in the picture below:
Figure 01: boundaries of the central area defined as the object of the elaboration of the Housing Development Plan for the Revitalization of the Central Area, highlighted in orange in the central core, and delimited by the boulevards, a more traditional and consolidated urban area, as proposed by Adolfo Hebster in 1875.
This territory comprises a surface of 474 ha and corresponds to 338 blocks. It composes the city´s downtown, from the beginning defined by its role as a connection between the interior of the state and a former harbour, with agricultural products (mainly cotton) flowing along it. Such connection was reflected in the radius-concentric road structure of Fortaleza´s urban tissue.
The comprehension of the dynamics of the region’s formation allowed the identification of the social and cultural heritage present in its urban fabric and in the everyday life of the city dwellers and users, its economic potential and the transformation trends of the area.
The raised aspects were analysed under the vision of the dynamics of formation and transformation of the central area, for the purpose of identifying the sectors which present the most favorable conditions to the objectives.
The social, cultural, economic, environmental and public security aspects were always regarded in close connection with the constructed area, over which strategies were designed in order to effectively revitalize the urban tissue.
URBAN VIEWPOINT ADOPTED TO FORMULATE THE PROPOSALS
Based on the characteristics of the occupancy and formation processes of central Fortaleza, as well as the comprehension of the community’s wishes, it was possible to define two types of actions:
- diffuse actions, whose systematic governmental approaches encompass the totality of the area.
The main guideline leading the set of proposals was to articulate the urban tissue in the strategic sectors, with a view to restoring the landscape potential, the heritage, the economic use for social inclusion, as well as the leisure and the cultural uses of the existing public spaces and equipment.
Such rearticulation of major symbolic urban elements of the area set the terms to support a housing policy, enabling the settlement of the population and ensuring a more effective occupation in the central area.
In the strategic sectors of the intervention, three types of actions will be necessary:
1) the first and main intervention is the adequate choice of land (greenfield or brownfield sites) in order to implement the housing project, with typologies proper to the local morphology and the socio-economic conditions of the population assisted;
2) the second intervention is the renovation and/or implementation of the connection between public spaces, with heritage, cultural and landscape value, and the business areas, with emphasis on the pedestrian mobility (improvement of sidewalks associated with the creation of green areas); Saiba mais...